paypal-retail-sdk-service

by djmckay

GitHub Readme.md

Authentication for the Retail SDK

Build Status Join the chat at https://gitter.im/paypal/retail-sdk

TL;DR: You need to use your client ID and secret from developer.paypal.com to get a token to call InitializeMerchant within the SDK. You can use our modules in your own server (node.js express/Kraken, ruby, Java, .Net, ...), or use one of our prebuilt Docker containers or Heroku builds (most of this is aspirational right now). You can do this for free on Heroku and Amazon EC2, including SSL if you use something like CloudFlare.

If you just want to know the gory details of what's happening at the network level, see What's Really Going On Here?.

Once you have your developer account on PayPal.com, to get started with this Node version, deploy it to Heroku by clicking the button below and then configure the environment variables in the Heroku dashboard.

Deploy

Required Environment Variables APP_SECURE_IDENTIFIERA value [you make up](https://identitysafe.norton.com/password-generator/) and keep secret to protect your PayPal refresh tokens. Other Environment Variables SETUP_ENABLEDIf set to true, you can go to /setup/live or /setup/sandbox to generate a token which you can copy into your code. You should turn this off in a 'live' server. ROOT_URLThe root URL of your new server, e.g. http://something.herokuapp.com. If not set, we will pull it from the first request we see. PAYPAL_LIVE_CLIENTIDThe PayPal client id for your application in the live environment. PAYPAL_LIVE_SECRETThe PayPal secret for your application in the live environment. PAYPAL_SANDBOX_CLIENTIDThe PayPal client id for your application in the sandbox environment PAYPAL_SANDBOX_SECRETThe PayPal secret for your application in the sandbox environment APP_REDIRECT_URLFor third party use, *after* PayPal authentication is complete the server will redirect to this URL with the token for InitializeMerchant in the Retail SDK. This is usually some sort of custom URL protocol like 'myappname://paypaltoken' or similar. The URL needs to launch your app and this server will pass it the token.

Usually you're in one of these two situations:

  • First Party - The account I made the PayPal.com developer application with is the only one I ever want to transact with. You will use this server to get a token and then you will put that token in your app.
  • Third Party - I want other merchants to use my application with their own accounts and give me permission to transact for them. You will call this server from your app to get a URL for PayPal Login, then when login completes this server will call APP_REDIRECT_URL as described above.

Click one of those links to get more information about setting up your client app for these situations.

Why can't I just put the id and secret in the app?

PayPal uses OAuth to authenticate an application's ability to transact on behalf of a merchant account. OAuth has three main "sensitive quantities" - the access token, the refresh token and the application secret. The access token is short lived (typically 15 minutes-8 hours) and useful only for a single account. A refresh token is long lived (by spec 10 years, in theory forever, in practice until the owner revokes it) and useful only for a single account. The application secret is permanent for a given application and useful for potentially all accounts.

Generally, it's ok to store the access token on the end-user (e.g. mobile) device. You should still store it securely, not record it in logs, etc, but it's value is short lived. The refresh token should not generally live on the end-user device because it takes away another choke point for you to disable the use of your application in case the device is lost or stolen (because you could just "invalidate" the refresh token for that account and then that device, the next time it came to your server to refresh the token would not get a new access token).

The application secret should never live on the end-user device because anyone who has that can infinitely refresh access tokens given refresh tokens, and can get an access token for YOUR account any time they want. More importantly, anyone holding the application secret can pretend to be your app and have an unsuspecting user give the rogue app an access and refresh token (by logging into PayPal and believing they are granting permission to your app).

So our recommended approach is to use our server modules or containers to create a server that stores your application secret and provides access tokens to your end user devices. Our modules also employ an additional server-only password to return a "modified refresh token" to the end user device which means you don't need a database. When your application needs a new access token, it calls the server module and provides the modified refresh token. The server module combines that with the application secret and calls the PayPal servers to obtain a new access token which it delivers back to the client.

Note that if you needed to make calls OUTSIDE of your application (such as from your backend services), you would need to get the access token/refresh token flow working on your backend services and would then need a database to store relevant user data. Doing so securely is outside of the scope of this document, but each server module readme describes the API, and there's no reason you can't use the same services for your other backend services.

First Party

You can go through the Login With PayPal flow and grant consent to your application just once. The token returned will include the "modified refresh token" that can be baked into your application and shipped. The server modules and containers we provide expose an endpoint for first party token creation (/setup) that can be disabled after you generate the original value. The point of the additional identifier (the APP_SECURE_IDENTIFIER, which you can just make up) is in the case where you have an application compromise or significant bug, you can change this identifier and applications with the old value will stop being able to transact on your behalf. Essentially this identifier is a remote kill switch that you control.

Third Party

Within this scheme there is another big question - do you have your own account system or do you want to use PayPal for all authentication? If you have your own account system, it's very likely you want to use our server modules instead of the standalone containers. In that case you would first authenticate the API caller against your own system, and verify the link between that account and the PayPal account before obtaining access tokens on their behalf. This provides an additional layer of security and control for end user applications making calls for your merchants via your app.

Note: You MUST set the redirect URL of your app on developer.paypal.com to match the server to which you deploy the paypal-retail-node code with the path /returnFromPayPal appended. For example, if you've deployed to http://pph-retail-node.herokuapp.com, the return URL MUST be set to http://pph-retail-node.herokuapp.com/returnFromPayPal

What's Really Going On Here?

Fundamentally, this application manages your client id and client secret in order to generate access tokens on behalf of a merchant (which could be the same account). These access tokens are in turn used by your application to call certain PayPal services on behalf of the merchant. The services which you can call are determined by the scopes you request during token creation. The first time you want to generate an access token for an account, you must send them to PayPal.com to login and consent to the scopes you request. This is accomplished by the /toPayPal endpoint in server.js and in turn the redirect method in this module (which you would use if integrating into your own node.js server). For example, for the client id EXAMPLEID which is registered with developer.paypal.com as having a return url of http://example.com/returnFromPayPal, you would send your merchant to

https://www.sandbox.paypal.com/webapps/auth/protocol/openidconnect/v1/authorize?response_type=code&client_id=EXAMPLEID&scope=openid+email+phone+profile+address+https://uri.paypal.com/services/paypalhere+https://api.paypal.com/v1/payments/.*+https://uri.paypal.com/services/paypalattributes/business&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fexample.com%2FreturnFromPayPal&state=something_you_need_to_get_back

The redirect_uri must match the URL registered on your application details page on the PayPal developer site EXACTLY. If you need to pass additional information that will be returned to your application post-login, use the state parameter. This implementation uses the state parameter to remember which environment you're trying to login to (e.g. sandbox or live).

Once login is complete, PayPal will send the merchant's browser back to the redirect_uri with an authorization code. The URL would be something like:

http://example.com/returnFromPayPal?state=something_you_need_to_get_back&scope=some_scopes&code=THE_CODE_FROM_PAYPAL

You must take that authorization code and submit it to PayPal, along with your client id and secret, to retrieve the access token and refresh token. This is handled by the /returnFromPayPal endpoint in server.js or the completeAuthentication method in the module. In reality, this is an HTTPS POST to the token endpoint (https://api.paypal.com/v1/identity/openidconnect/tokenservice) with the following URL-encoded form body:

grant_type=authorization_code&code=THE_CODE_FROM_PAYPAL&redirect_uri=http%3A%2F%2Fexample.com%2FreturnFromPayPal

This should return the access and refresh tokens:

{ scope: 'https://uri.paypal.com/services/paypalattributes/business phone https://uri.paypal.com/services/paypalhere https://api.paypal.com/v1/payments/.* address email openid profile',
  nonce: 'SOME_RANDOM_STUFF',
  access_token: 'A_LONG_CODE',
  token_type: 'Bearer',
  expires_in: 28800,
  refresh_token: 'A_LONGER_CODE'
}

You then make requests using this access token until it expires. Once it expires (which is indicated by an error telling you so), you should call the refresh endpoint (https://api.paypal.com/v1/oauth2/token) with the client id and secret in the Authorization header and the refresh token in the body:

grant_type=refresh_token&refresh_token=A_LONGER_CODE&scope=https://uri.paypal.com/services/paypalattributes/business+phone+https://uri.paypal.com/services/paypalhere+https://api.paypal.com/v1/payments/.*+address+email+openid+profile

And that's all there is to making PayPal API requests using access tokens.