Okta SCIM 2.0 Example Server

by oktadeveloper

GitHub Readme.md

Welcome to the Okta SCIM Beta

Okta's SCIM implementation is currently in Beta status and provides no guarantees for backwards-compatibility. Okta is free to break this SCIM implementation until it is released.

Thank you for your interest in the Okta SCIM beta.

By implementing support for the SCIM standard, an application in the Okta Application Network can be notified when a user is created, updated, or removed from their application in Okta.

If you haven't heard of SCIM before, here is a good summary from the Wikipedia article on SCIM:

System for Cross-domain Identity Management (SCIM) is an open standard for automating the exchange of user identity information between identity domains, or IT systems.

Getting into the Okta SCIM Beta

Before building your SCIM Server, please apply for admission to the SCIM Beta. Okta reviews new applicants on a weekly basis. We will reply within 7 days and give you an estimated timeline.

Once admitted, we will collect information about your SCIM Server to get a generic SCIM template application ready for testing. You will need to be ready to provide:

  1. The oktapreview.com Okta org that you will use to develop your SCIM integration. (If you don't already have an Okta org, create an Okta Developer account)
  2. The Base URL to which Okta will send SCIM requests to your service.
  3. The Authentication method that Okta will use to authenticate with your service.
  4. Details on the Base URL and Authentication method are covered below.

Once the generic SCIM template app is in your Okta org, you can start testing on your SCIM integration directly with Okta.

Understanding of User Provisioning in Okta

Okta is a universal directory with the main focus in storing identity related information. Users can be created in Okta directly as local users or imported from external systems like Active Directory or a Human Resource Management Software system.

An Okta user schema contains many different user attributes, but always contains a user name, first name, last name, and email address. This schema can be extended.

Okta user attributes can be mapped from a source into Okta and can be mapped from Okta to a target.

Below are the main operations in Okta's SCIM user provisioning lifecycle:

  1. Create a user account.
  2. Read a list of accounts, with support for searching for a preexisting account.
  3. Update an account (user profile changes, entitlement changes, etc).
  4. Deactivate an account.

In Okta, an application instance is a connector that provides Single Sign-On and provisioning functionality with the target application.

Testing your SCIM server with Runscope

The easiest way for you to develop and verify your SCIM integration is to make use of an automated test suite that runs on Runscope.

If you are already familiar with Runscope, then just import the SCIM_tests_for_Runscope.json API test and configure the SCIM Base URL variable to point at the base URL for your SCIM server, for example: https://example.com/scim/v2.

If you are not familiar with Runscope, follow the detailed instructions below to get started with using Runscope to test your SCIM server.

Set up Runscope

If you do not have a Runscope account already, we suggest starting with Runscope's free plan for Okta Here is how to get started:

  1. Download the SCIM_tests_for_Runscope.json file from this repository to your local hard drive. (You will use this file to import Okta's SCIM test suite into Runscope.)
  2. Sign up for Runscope.
  3. You may see a tutorial after signing up for Runscope, if so, click "Skip Tutorial".
  4. You should now see a screen that says "API Tests".
  5. In the lower left of your screen, click on the "Import Tests" link.
  6. You should now see a title that starts with "Import Tests into …"
  7. Select "Runscope API Tests" as the format to import
  8. Click the "Choose File" button and select the SCIM_tests_for_Runscope.json that you saved in Step 1 above.
  9. Click the blue "Import API Test" button.
  10. After the import completes, click on the "All Tests" link on the left hand side of your screen.

Now that you've imported Okta's SCIM test suite into Runscope, your next step will be to customize the test suite for the SCIM integration that you are writing.

Customize the imported Runscope test for your SCIM integration

After importing Okta's SCIM test suite into Runscope, you will need to configure the test for your SCIM integration. Here is how to do that:

  1. You should be looking at the "API Tests" screen in Runscope, if not, click on the "Tests" tab on the top of Runscope's user interface.

  2. You should see a test named "Okta SCIM 2.0 Tests", if not, follow the "Set up Runscope" steps above.

  3. Move your mouse over the "Okta SCIM 2.0 Tests" test, then select the "Edit" link on the lower left of the test.

  4. In the "Environment" section of your test, you should see a collapsed "Test Settings" section, click the arrow on the left of "Test Settings" to expand this section.

  5. "Initial Variables" should be selected, click the "Add Initial Variable" link.

  6. Name the variable "SCIM Base URL" (case sensitive, use spaces between words)

  7. Set the value of the "SCIM Base URL" to the base URL for your SCIM integration.

    For example, if your SCIM integration is hosted on https://example.com and uses a prefix of /scim/v2 then the "SCIM Base URL" for your integration would be: https://example.com/scim/v2

    If you are developing your SCIM integration in a local development environment, we suggest using the excellent tool ngrok to expose your local development environment to Runscope

  8. Click the "Save" button at the top of the test.

Running Okta's SCIM tests against your SCIM server

Now that you have updated your SCIM test in Runscope for your SCIM server, it is time to run the test:

  1. If you followed the steps above, you should now be seeing a "Run Now" button at the top of your test.

  2. Click the "Run Now" button.

  3. On the left side of your screen, you will see a test show up in the "Recent Test Results" section.

  4. Click on the top test in the "Recent Test Results" section.

  5. If the test is still running, you will see live updates of the test in progress. Once the test is complete, you will see the results of your test.

  6. To see the details of tests, click on the little arrow next to each test to expand the details of a particular test case.

    Doing this will allow you to see the Request and Response for each HTTP request that was made.

  7. Since this test is running in your own Runscope instance, we encourage you to update the tests to better fit your own environment.

  8. See the "Required SCIM Capabilities" section below for details on what your SCIM server will need to implement to pass all of the tests.

  9. Keep running this test suite until all the tests pass. Here is an example of a test suite where all tests pass.

Sharing test results from Runscope

As you are developing your SCIM server, you will likely want to share test results with teammates or with Okta.

Here is how to share a test result from Runscope with someone else:

  1. Open the test result that you want to share.
  2. At the top of the test result, Change the "Private / Shareable" toggle from "Private" to "Shareable".
  3. Copy the URL for the test result, it will look something like this: https://www.runscope.com/radar/abcdefghijkl/m01nopq2-3456-7r8s-9012-t34567uvw890/history/123ef4gh-i567-89j0-1k2l-3m4n5o678901
  4. Share that URL with the person that you want to share the test result with. Here is an example test result from Runscope: https://www.runscope.com/radar/qmovuxkrhtws/f95ac15f-3f22-46c3-8f1a-1001fbf8fb66/history/6a35fabf-5ce5-4e48-a13f-7292b1bd3cc5

Next steps

Once you have a SCIM server that passes all of the Runscope tests, you will want to do the following things:

  1. Consider using Runscope to monitor your SCIM server.

    Once you have a test suite that passes, you should consider having Runscope run your SCIM test suite on a schedule and alert you if the test suite fails.

  2. Follow the steps in the "Submitting to Okta" section of this guide.

    In particular, you will want make sure that the Profile Attributes and Attribute Mappings in your Okta application show only the attributes and mappings that your SCIM server supports.

Required SCIM Capabilities

Okta supports provisioning to both SCIM 1.1 and SCIM 2.0 APIs.

If you haven't implemented SCIM, Okta recommends that you implement SCIM 2.0.

Okta implements SCIM 2.0 as described in RFCs 7642, 7643, 7644.

If you are writing a SCIM implementation for the first time, an important part of the planning process is determining which of Okta's provisioning features your SCIM API can or should support and which features you do not need to support.

Specifically, you do not need to implement the SCIM 2.0 specification fully to work with Okta. At a minimum, Okta requires that your SCIM 2.0 API implement the features described below:

Base URL

The API endpoint for your SCIM API MUST be secured via TLS (https://), Okta does not connect to unsecured API endpoints.

You can choose any Base URL for your API endpoint. If you are implementing a brand new SCIM API, we suggest using /scim/v2 as your Base URL; for example: https://example.com/scim/v2 - however, you must support the URL structure described in the "SCIM Endpoints and HTTP Methods" section of RFC7644.

Authentication

Your SCIM API MUST be secured against anonymous access. At the moment, Okta supports authentication against SCIM APIs with one of the following methods:

  1. OAuth 2.0
  2. Basic Authentication
  3. Custom HTTP Header

Basic User Schema

Your service must be capable of storing the following four user attributes:

  1. User ID (userName)
  2. First Name (name.givenName)
  3. Last Name (name.familyName)
  4. Email (emails)

Note that Okta supports more than the four user attributes listed above. However, these four attributes are the base attributes that you must support. The full user schema for SCIM 2.0 is described in section 4 of RFC 7643.

Best Practice: Keep your User ID distinct from the User Email Address. Many systems use an email address as a user identifier, but this is not recommended, as email addresses often change. Using a unique User ID to identify user resources prevents future complications.

If your service supports user attributes beyond those four base attributes, add support for those additional attributes to your SCIM API. In some cases, you might need to configure Okta to map non-standard user attributes into the user profile for your application.

Included in this git repository is a sample application written in Python/Flask, this sample application implements SCIM 2.0. Below is how this sample application defines these attributes:

userName = db.Column(db.String(250),
                     unique=True,
                     nullable=False,
                     index=True)
familyName = db.Column(db.String(250))
middleName = db.Column(db.String(250))
givenName = db.Column(db.String(250))

In addition to the basic user schema user attributes described above, your SCIM API must also have a unique identifier for each user resource and should also support marking resources as "active" or "inactive."

In the SCIM specification, the id attribute is used to uniquely identify resources. Section 3.1 of RFC 7643 provides more details on the id attribute:

A unique identifier for a SCIM resource as defined by the service provider. Each representation of the resource MUST include a non-empty "id" value. This identifier MUST be unique across the SCIM service provider's entire set of resources. It MUST be a stable, non-reassignable identifier that does not change when the same resource is returned in subsequent requests. The value of the "id" attribute is always issued by the service provider and MUST NOT be specified by the client. The string "bulkId" is a reserved keyword and MUST NOT be used within any unique identifier value. The attribute characteristics are "caseExact" as "true", a mutability of "readOnly", and a "returned" characteristic of "always".

Our sample application defines id as a UUID, since RFC 7643 requires that "this identifier MUST be unique across the SCIM service provider's entire set of resources."

id = db.Column(db.String(36), primary_key=True)

Note: Your SCIM API can use anything as an id, provided that the id uniquely identifies reach resource, as described in section 3.1 of RFC 7643.

Finally, your SCIM API must also support marking a resource as "active" or "inactive."

In our sample application, each user resource has a Boolean "active" attribute which is used to mark a user resource as "active" or "inactive":

active = db.Column(db.Boolean, default=False)

Functionality

Below are a list of the SCIM API endpoints that your SCIM API must support to work with Okta.

Create Account: POST /Users

Your SCIM 2.0 API should allow the creation of a new user account. The four basic attributes listed above must be supported, along with any additional attributes that your application supports. If your application supports entitlements, your SCIM 2.0 API should allow configuration of those as well.

An HTTP POST to the /Users endpoint must return an immutable or system ID of the user (id) must be returned to Okta.

Okta will call this SCIM API endpoint under the following circumstances:

  • Direct assignment

    When a user is assigned to an Okta application using the "Assign to People" button in the "People" tab.

  • Group-based assignment

    When a user is added to a group that is assigned to an Okta application. For example, an Okta administrator can assign a group of users to an Okta application using the "Assign to Groups" button in the "Groups" tab. When a group is assigned to an Okta application, Okta sends updates to the assigned application when a user is added or removed from that group.

Below is an example demonstrating how the sample application handles account creation:

@app.route("/scim/v2/Users", methods=['POST'])
def users_post():
    user_resource = request.get_json(force=True)
    user = User(user_resource)
    user.id = str(uuid.uuid4())
    db.session.add(user)
    db.session.commit()
    rv = user.to_scim_resource()
    send_to_browser(rv)
    resp = flask.jsonify(rv)
    resp.headers['Location'] = url_for('user_get',
                                       user_id=user.userName,
                                       _external=True)
    return resp, 201

Note: force=True is set because Okta sends application/scim+json as the Content-Type and the .get_json() method expects application/json.

For more information on user creation via the /Users SCIM endpoint, see section 3.3 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Read list of accounts with search: GET /Users

Your SCIM 2.0 API must support the ability for Okta to retrieve users (and entitlements like groups if available) from your service. This allows Okta to fetch all user resources in an efficient manner for reconciliation and initial bootstrap (to get all users from your app into the system).

Here is an example using curl to make a GET request to /Users:

curl https://joel-scim.herokuapp.com/scim/v2/Users

Below is how the sample application handles listing user resources, with support for filtering and pagination:

@app.route("/scim/v2/Users", methods=['GET'])
def users_get():
    query = User.query
    request_filter = request.args.get('filter')
    match = None
    if request_filter:
        match = re.match('(\w+) eq "([^"]*)"', request_filter)
    if match:
        (search_key_name, search_value) = match.groups()
        search_key = getattr(User, search_key_name)
        query = query.filter(search_key == search_value)
    count = int(request.args.get('count', 100))
    start_index = int(request.args.get('startIndex', 1))
    if start_index < 1:
        start_index = 1
    start_index -= 1
    query = query.offset(start_index).limit(count)
    total_results = query.count()
    found = query.all()
    rv = ListResponse(found,
                      start_index=start_index,
                      count=count,
                      total_results=total_results)
    return flask.jsonify(rv.to_scim_resource())

If you want to see the SQL query that SQLAlchemy is using for the query, add this code after the query statement that you want to see: print(str(query.statement))

For more details on the /Users SCIM endpoint, see section 3.4.2 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Read Account Details: GET /Users/{id}

Your SCIM 2.0 API must support fetching of users by user id.

Below is how the sample application handles returning a user resource by user_id:

@app.route("/scim/v2/Users/<user_id>", methods=['GET'])
def user_get(user_id):
    try:
        user = User.query.filter_by(id=user_id).one()
    except:
        return scim_error("User not found", 404)
    return render_json(user)

If we don't find a user, we return a HTTP status 404 ("Not found") with SCIM error message.

For more details on the /Users/{id} SCIM endpoint, see section 3.4.1 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Update Account Details: PUT /Users/{id}

When a profile attribute of a user assigned to your SCIM enabled application is changed, Okta will do the following:

  • Make a GET request against /Users/{id} on your SCIM API for the user to update.
  • Take the resource returned from your SCIM API and update only the attributes that need to be updated.
  • Make a PUT request against /Users/{id} in your SCIM API with the updated resource as the payload.

Examples of things that can cause changes to an Okta user profile are:

  • A change in profile a master like Active Directory or a Human Resource Management Software system.
  • A direct change of a profile attribute in Okta for a local user.

Below is how the sample application handles account profile updates:

@app.route("/scim/v2/Users/<user_id>", methods=['PUT'])
def users_put(user_id):
    user_resource = request.get_json(force=True)
    user = User.query.filter_by(id=user_id).one()
    user.update(user_resource)
    db.session.add(user)
    db.session.commit()
    return render_json(user)

For more details on updates to the /Users/{id} SCIM endpoint, see section 3.5.1 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Deactivate Account: PATCH /Users/{id}

Deprovisioning is perhaps the most important reason customers why customers ask that your application supports provisioning with Okta. Your SCIM API should support account deactivation via a PATCH to /Users/{id} where the payload of the PATCH request sets the active property of the user to false.

Your SCIM API should allow account updates at the attribute level. If entitlements are supported, your SCIM API should also be able to update entitlements based on SCIM profile updates.

Okta will send a PATCH request to your application to deactivate a user when an Okta user is "unassigned" from your application. Examples of when this happen are as follows:

  • A user is manually unassigned from your application.
  • A user is removed from a group which is assigned to your application.
  • When a user is deactivated in Okta, either manually or via by an external profile master like Active Directory or a Human Resource Management Software system.

Below is how the sample application handles account deactivation:

@app.route("/scim/v2/Users/<user_id>", methods=['PATCH'])
def users_patch(user_id):
    patch_resource = request.get_json(force=True)
    for attribute in ['schemas', 'Operations']:
        if attribute not in patch_resource:
            message = "Payload must contain '{}' attribute.".format(attribute)
            return message, 400
    schema_patchop = 'urn:ietf:params:scim:api:messages:2.0:PatchOp'
    if schema_patchop not in patch_resource['schemas']:
        return "The 'schemas' type in this request is not supported.", 501
    user = User.query.filter_by(id=user_id).one()
    for operation in patch_resource['Operations']:
        if 'op' not in operation and operation['op'] != 'replace':
            continue
        value = operation['value']
        for key in value.keys():
            setattr(user, key, value[key])
    db.session.add(user)
    db.session.commit()
    return render_json(user)

For more details on user attribute updates to /Users/{id} SCIM endpoint, see section 3.5.2 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Filtering on id, userName, and emails

Being able to filter results by the id, userName, or emails attributes is a critical part of working with Okta.

Your SCIM API must be able to filter users by userName and should also support filtering by id and emails. Filtering support is required because most provisioning actions require the ability for Okta to determine if a user resource exists on your system.

Consider the scenario where an Okta customer with thousands of users has a provisioning integration with your system, which also has thousands of users. When an Okta customer adds a new user to their Okta organization, Okta needs a way to determine quickly if a resource for the newly created user was previously created on your system.

Examples of filters that Okta might send to your SCIM API are as follows:

userName eq "jane@example.com"

emails eq "jane@example.com"

At the moment, Okta only supports the eq filter operator. However, the filtering capabilities described in the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification are much more complicated.

Here is an example of how to implement SCIM filtering in Python:

request_filter = request.args.get('filter')
match = None
if request_filter:
    match = re.match('(\w+) eq "([^"]*)"', request_filter)
if match:
    (search_key_name, search_value) = match.groups()
    search_key = getattr(User, search_key_name)
    query = query.filter(search_key == search_value)

Note: The sample code above only supports the eq operator. We recommend that you add support for all of the filter operators described in table 3 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

For more details on filtering in SCIM 2.0, see section 3.4.2.2 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Filtering on externalId

In addition to supporting filtering on id, userName, and emails, your application should also support filtering on externalId.

Okta will use the externalId to determine if your application already has an account. externalId is used as a stable identifier for users, because the userName and email addresses for a user can change.

Here is an example of an externalId filter that might be sent to your application:

externalId eq "00u1abcdefGHIJKLMNOP"

Note: The sample application included in this project does not yet demonstrate how to implement storing and filtering by externalId. However, Okta strongly recommends that your SCIM implementation supports storing and filtering by externalId. For details on supporting externalId, see section 3.1 of RFC 7643. Quoted below:

[externalId is] A String that is an identifier for the resource as defined by the provisioning client. The "externalId" may simplify identification of a resource between the provisioning client and the service provider by allowing the client to use a filter to locate the resource with an identifier from the provisioning domain, obviating the need to store a local mapping between the provisioning domain's identifier of the resource and the identifier used by the service provider. Each resource MAY include a non-empty "externalId" value. The value of the "externalId" attribute is always issued by the provisioning client and MUST NOT be specified by the service provider. The service provider MUST always interpret the externalId as scoped to the provisioning domain. While the server does not enforce uniqueness, it is assumed that the value's uniqueness is controlled by the client setting the value.

When adding support for externalId filtering to your application, we suggest that you use OAuth2.0 for authentication and use the OAuth2.0 client_id to scope the externalId to the provisioning domain.

Resource Paging

When returning large lists of resources, your SCIM implementation must support pagination using a limit (count) and offset (startIndex) to return smaller groups of resources in a request.

Below is an example of a curl command that makes a request to the /Users/ SCIM endpoint with count and startIndex set:

$ curl 'https://scim-server.example.com/scim/v2/Users?count=1&startIndex=1'
{
  "Resources": [
    {
      "active": false,
      "id": 1,
      "meta": {
        "location": "http://scim-server.example.com/scim/v2/Users/1",
        "resourceType": "User"
      },
      "name": {
        "familyName": "Doe",
        "givenName": "Jane",
        "middleName": null
      },
      "schemas": [
        "urn:ietf:params:scim:schemas:core:2.0:User"
      ],
      "userName": "jane.doe@example.com"
    }
  ],
  "itemsPerPage": 1,
  "schemas": [
    "urn:ietf:params:scim:api:messages:2.0:ListResponse"
  ],
  "startIndex": 0,
  "totalResults": 1
}

Note: When returning a paged resource, your API should return a capitalized Resources JSON key ("Resources"), however Okta will also support a lowercase string ("resources"). Okta will also accept lowercased JSON strings for the keys of child nodes inside Resources object ("startindex", "itemsperpage", "totalresults", etc)

One way to handle paged resources is to have your database do the paging for you. Here is how the sample application handles pagination with SQLAlchemy:

count = int(request.args.get('count', 100))
start_index = int(request.args.get('startIndex', 1))
if start_index < 1:
    start_index = 1
start_index -= 1
query = query.offset(start_index).limit(count)

Note: This code subtracts "1" from the startIndex, because startIndex is 1-indexed and the OFFSET statement is 0-indexed.

For more details pagination on a SCIM 2.0 endpoint, see section 3.4.2.4 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Rate Limiting

Some customer actions, such as adding hundreds of users at once, causes large bursts of HTTP requests to your SCIM API. For scenarios like this, we suggest that your SCIM API return rate limiting information to Okta via the HTTP 429 Too Many Requests status code. This helps Okta throttle the rate at which SCIM requests are made to your API.

For more details on rate limiting requests using the HTTP 429 status code, see section 4 of RFC 6585.

SCIM Features Not Implemented by Okta

The following features are currently not supported by Okta:

DELETE /Users/{id}

Deleting users via DELETE is covered in section 3.6 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Okta users are never deleted; they are deactivated instead. Because of this, Okta never makes an HTTP DELETE request to a user resource on your SCIM API. Instead, Okta makes an HTTP PATCH request to set the active setting to false.

Querying with POST

The ability to query users with a POST request is described in section 3.4.3 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Querying using POST is sometimes useful if your query contains personally identifiable information that would be exposed in system logs if used query parameters with a GET request.

Okta currently does not support this feature.

Bulk Operations

The ability to send a large collection of resource operations in a single request is covered in section 3.7 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Okta currently does not support this feature and makes one request per resource operation.

"/Me" Authenticated Subject Alias

The /Me URI alias for the current authenticated subject is covered in section 3.11 of the SCIM 2.0 Protocol Specification.

Okta does not currently make SCIM requests with the /Me URI alias.

/Groups API endpoint

Okta currently does not support using the /Groups endpoint of a SCIM API. When support is added for the /Groups endpoint, Okta plans on using the following HTTP requests against the /Groups endpoint:

  • Read list of Groups: GET /Groups

  • Create Group: POST /Groups

  • Read Group detail: GET /Groups/{id}

  • Delete Group: DELETE /Groups/{id}

/Schemas API endpoint

Okta does not currently make queries against the /Schemas endpoint, but this functionality is being planned.

Here is the specification for the /Schemas endpoint, from section 4 of RFC 7644:

An HTTP GET to this endpoint is used to retrieve information about resource schemas supported by a SCIM service provider. An HTTP GET to the endpoint "/Schemas" SHALL return all supported schemas in ListResponse format (see Figure 3). Individual schema definitions can be returned by appending the schema URI to the /Schemas endpoint. For example:

/Schemas/urn:ietf:params:scim:schemas:core:2.0:User

The contents of each schema returned are described in Section 7 of RFC7643. An example representation of SCIM schemas may be found in Section 8.7 of RFC7643.

/ServiceProviderConfig API endpoint

Okta does not currently make queries against the /ServiceProviderConfig endpoint, but this functionality is being planned.

Here is the specification for the /ServiceProviderConfig endpoint, from section 4 of RFC 7644:

An HTTP GET to this endpoint will return a JSON structure that describes the SCIM specification features available on a service provider. This endpoint SHALL return responses with a JSON object using a "schemas" attribute of "urn:ietf:params:scim:schemas:core:2.0:ServiceProviderConfig". The attributes returned in the JSON object are defined in Section 5 of RFC7643. An example representation of SCIM service provider configuration may be found in Section 8.5 of RFC7643.

Filtering on meta.lastModified

Okta does not currently make queries for resources using meta.lastModified as part of a filter expression.

Okta plans to add functionality to fetch incremental updates from SCIM APIs by querying for resources using a filter expression that requests resources which were updated since the last update.

This will likely be done using the gt filter operator. For example:

filter=meta.lastModified gt "2011-05-13T04:42:34Z"

Submitting to Okta

Once you have SCIM provisioning working in your Okta application, the last thing to do before submitting your application to Okta is the following:

  1. Check the Profile Attributes for your application.
  2. Check the Attribute Mappings for your application.

Check the Profile Attributes for Your Application

Before submitting your application to Okta, you should check the User Attributes to make sure that the attributes are set to what you would want your users to see.

Check your Profile Attributes as follows:

  • From the "Admin" section in Okta, open the settings page for your application.

  • In the "Provisioning" tab, scroll to the bottom and click the "Edit Attributes" button in the "User Attributes" section.

  • A "Profile Editor" screen will open, check the following settings:

    • The "Display name" for the application

    • The "Description"

    • In the "Attributes" section, remove all attributes that are not supported by your application.

      This is an important step! Your users will get confused if your application appears to support attributes that are not supported by your SCIM API.

      You can delete an attribute by selecting an attribute, then clicking the "Delete" button located in right hand attribute details pane.

    • After you've removed all unsupported attributes from the "Attributes" section, check through the remaining attributes. In particular, check that the following properties for each attribute are what you expect them to be:

      • Display name
      • Variable name
      • External name
      • External namespace
      • Data type
      • Attribute required

    Only mark an attribute as required if one of the following is true:

    1. The attribute must be set for your provisioning integration to work.
    2. An Okta administrator must populate a value for this attribute.
      • Scope
    3. If the settings for any of your supported user attributes are incorrect, contact Okta and request the correction for your attribute.

    Click the blue "Back to profiles" link when you are done checking the Profile Attributes for your application.

Check the Attribute Mappings for Your Application

The last step for you to complete before submitting your application to Okta is to check the User Profile Mappings for your application. These mappings are what determine how profile attributes are mapped to and from your application to an Okta user's Universal Directory profile.

To check the User Profile Mappings for your application, do the following:

  • From the "Admin" section in Okta, open the settings page for your application.
  • In the "Provisioning" tab, scroll to the bottom and click the "Edit Mappings" button in the "Attribute Mappings" section.
  • Check that each mapping is what you would expect it to be. Be sure to check both of the followign:
    1. From your application to Okta.
    2. From Okta to your application.

Contact Okta

After you've finished verifying that your SCIM API works with Okta, it is time to submit your application to Okta.

Work with your contact at Okta to start your submission.

If you have any questions about this document, or how to work with SCIM, send an email to developers@okta.com.

Appendix: Details on the example SCIM server

Included in this git repository is an example SCIM server written in Python.

This example SCIM server demonstrates how to implement a basic SCIM server that can create, read, update, and deactivate Okta users.

The "Required SCIM Capabilities" section has the sample code that handles the HTTP requests to this sample application, below we describe the rest of code used in the example.

Deploy to Heroku

The easiest way to get this example SCIM server running is to use the "Deploy to Heroku" button below:

Deploy

How to run

This example code was written for Python 2.7 and does not currently work with Python 3.

Here is how to run the example code on your machine:

First, start by doing a git checkout of this repository, then cd to directory that git creates. Then, do the following:

  1. cd to the directory you just checked out:

    $ cd okta-scim-beta
    
  2. Create an isolated Python environment named "venv" using virtualenv:

    $ virtualenv venv
    
  3. Next, activate the newly created virtualenv:

    $ source venv/bin/activate
    
  4. Then, install the dependencies for the sample SCIM server using Python's "pip" package manager:

    $ pip install -r requirements.txt
    
  5. Finally, start the example SCIM server using this command:

    $ python scim-server.py
    

Introduction

Below are instructions for writing a SCIM server in Python, using Flask and SQLAlchemy.

A completed version of this example server is available in this git repository in the file named scim-server.py.

Imports

We start by importing the Python packages that the SCIM server will use:

import os
import re
import uuid

from flask import Flask
from flask import render_template
from flask import request
from flask import url_for
from flask_socketio import SocketIO
from flask_socketio import emit
from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy
import flask

Setup

re adds support for regular expression parsing, flask adds the Flask web framework, flask_socketio and flask_sqlalchemy add a idiomatic support for their respective technologies to Flask.

Next we initialize Flask, SQLAlchemy, and SocketIO:

app = Flask(__name__)
database_url = os.getenv('DATABASE_URL', 'sqlite:///test-users.db')
app.config['SQLALCHEMY_TRACK_MODIFICATIONS'] = False
app.config['SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI'] = database_url
db = SQLAlchemy(app)
socketio = SocketIO(app)

SQLAlchemy support for the "users" table:

Below is the class that SQLAlchemy uses to give us easy access to the "users" table.

The update method is used to "merge" or "update" a new User object into an existing User object. This is used to simplify the code for the code that handles PUT calls to /Users/{id}.

The to_scim_resource method is used to turn a User object into a SCIM "User" resource schema.

class User(db.Model):
    __tablename__ = 'users'
    id = db.Column(db.String(36), primary_key=True)
    active = db.Column(db.Boolean, default=False)
    userName = db.Column(db.String(250),
                         unique=True,
                         nullable=False,
                         index=True)
    familyName = db.Column(db.String(250))
    middleName = db.Column(db.String(250))
    givenName = db.Column(db.String(250))

    def __init__(self, resource):
        self.update(resource)

    def update(self, resource):
        for attribute in ['userName', 'active']:
            if attribute in resource:
                setattr(self, attribute, resource[attribute])
        for attribute in ['givenName', 'middleName', 'familyName']:
            if attribute in resource['name']:
                setattr(self, attribute, resource['name'][attribute])

    def to_scim_resource(self):
        rv = {
            "schemas": ["urn:ietf:params:scim:schemas:core:2.0:User"],
            "id": self.id,
            "userName": self.userName,
            "name": {
                "familyName": self.familyName,
                "givenName": self.givenName,
                "middleName": self.middleName,
            },
            "active": self.active,
            "meta": {
                "resourceType": "User",
                "location": url_for('user_get',
                                    user_id=self.id,
                                    _external=True),
                # "created": "2010-01-23T04:56:22Z",
                # "lastModified": "2011-05-13T04:42:34Z",
            }
        }
        return rv

Support for SCIM Query resources

We also define a ListResponse class, which is used to return an array of SCIM resources into a Query Resource.

class ListResponse():
    def __init__(self, list, start_index=1, count=None, total_results=0):
        self.list = list
        self.start_index = start_index
        self.count = count
        self.total_results = total_results

    def to_scim_resource(self):
        rv = {
            "schemas": ["urn:ietf:params:scim:api:messages:2.0:ListResponse"],
            "totalResults": self.total_results,
            "startIndex": self.start_index,
            "Resources": []
        }
        resources = []
        for item in self.list:
            resources.append(item.to_scim_resource())
        if self.count:
            rv['itemsPerPage'] = self.count
        rv['Resources'] = resources
        return rv

Support for SCIM error messages

Given a message and HTTP status_code, this will return a Flask response with the appropriately formatted SCIM error message.

By default, this function will return an HTTP status of "HTTP 500 Internal Server Error". However you should return a more specific status_code when possible.

See section 3.12 of RFC 7644 for details.

def scim_error(message, status_code=500):
    rv = {
        "schemas": ["urn:ietf:params:scim:api:messages:2.0:Error"],
        "detail": message,
        "status": str(status_code)
    }
    return flask.jsonify(rv), status_code

Socket.IO support

This sample application makes use of Socket.IO to give you a "real time" view of SCIM requests that Okta makes to this sample application.

When you load the sample application (the "/" route), your browser will be sent a web application that uses Socket.IO to display updates without the need for you to reload the page:

@app.route('/')
def hello():
    return render_template('base.html')

This page is updated using the functions below:

  • send_to_browser is syntactic sugar that will emit Socket.IO messages to the browser with the proper broadcast and namespace settings.
  • render_json is more syntactic sugar which is used to render JSON replies to Okta's SCIM client and emit the SCIM resource to Socket.IO at the same time.
  • test_connect is the function called with a browser first starts up Socket.IO, it returns a list of currently active users to the browser via Socket.IO.
  • test_disconnect is a stub that shows how to handle Socket.IO "disconnect" messages.

The code described above is as follows:

def send_to_browser(obj):
    socketio.emit('user',
                  {'data': obj},
                  broadcast=True,
                  namespace='/test')


def render_json(obj):
    rv = obj.to_scim_resource()
    send_to_browser(rv)
    return flask.jsonify(rv)


@socketio.on('connect', namespace='/test')
def test_connect():
    for user in User.query.filter_by(active=True).all():
        emit('user', {'data': user.to_scim_resource()})


@socketio.on('disconnect', namespace='/test')
def test_disconnect():
    print('Client disconnected')

Socket.IO application

Below is the JavaScript that powers the Socket.IO application described above. For the full contents of the HTML that this JavaScript is part of, see the base.html file in the templates directory of this project.

$(document).ready(function () {
    namespace = '/test'; // change to an empty string to use the global namespace
    var uri = 'https://' + document.domain  + namespace;
    console.log(uri);
    var socket = io.connect(uri);

    socket.on('user', function(msg) {
        console.log(msg);
        var user = msg.data;
        var user_element = '#' + user.id
        var userRow = '<tr id="' + user.id + '"><td>' + user.id + '</td><td>' + user.name.givenName + '</td><td>' + user.name.familyName + '</td><td>' + user.userName + '</td></tr>';
        if($(user_element).length && user.active) {
            $(user_element).replaceWith(userRow);
        } else if (user.active) {
            $('#users-table').append(userRow);
        }

        if($(user_element).length && user.active) {
            $(user_element).show();
        }
        if($(user_element).length && !user.active) {
            $(user_element).hide();
        }
    });
});

Support for running from the command line

This bit of code allows you to run the sample application by typing python scim-server.py from your command line.

This code also includes a try/catch block that creates all tables of the User.query.one() function throws an error (which should only happen if the User table isn't defined.

if __name__ == "__main__":
    try:
        User.query.one()
    except:
        db.create_all()
    # app.debug = True
    socketio.run(app)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

  • What are the differences between SCIM 1.1 and 2.0?

    Section SCIM 1.1 SCIM 2.0 Notes Namespaces
    • urn:scim:schemas:core:1.0
    • urn:scim:schemas:extension:enterprise:1.0
      • urn:ietf:params:scim:schemas:core:2.0:User
      • urn:ietf:params:scim:schemas:extension:enterprise:2.0:User
        Namespaces are different therefore 2.0 is not backwards compatible with 1.1 Service Provider Config Endpoint /ServiceProviderConfigs /ServiceProviderConfig Notice 2.0 does NOT have an 's' at the end Patch Protocol Section 3.3.2 Section 3.5.2: Uses JSON Patch Error Response Schema Section 3.9 Section 3.12 Reference Type N/A Supports ref type pointing to the full url of another SCIM Resource Query by POST /search N/A Section 3.4.3
      • What if the SCIM 1.1 spec isn't clear on a specific use case or scenario?

        Okta recommends looking at the SCIM 2.0 spec for more clarification. The SCIM 2.0 spec provides more guidelines and examples for various scenario's.

      • Why do I need to implement the type attribute for attributes such as emails/phoneNumbers/addresses?

        The SCIM User Profile allows for an array of emails. The only way to differentiate between emails is to use the type sub-attribute. See section 2.4 of RFC 7643 for more details:

        When returning multi-valued attributes, service providers SHOULD canonicalize the value returned (e.g., by returning a value for the sub-attribute "type", such as "home" or "work") when appropriate (e.g., for email addresses and URLs).

        Service providers MAY return element objects with the same "value" sub-attribute more than once with a different "type" sub-attribute (e.g., the same email address may be used for work and home) but SHOULD NOT return the same (type, value) combination more than once per attribute, as this complicates processing by the client.

        When defining schema for multi-valued attributes, it is considered a good practice to provide a type attribute that MAY be used for the purpose of canonicalization of values. In the schema definition for an attribute, the service provider MAY define the recommended canonical values (see Section 7).

      • I only have one email/phone number/address in my user profile. Do I need to implement the array of emails/phone numbers/addresses?

        Yes, the you must return these fields in an array, which is specified in the SCIM spec as a multi-valued attribute: Section 2.4

      Dependencies

      Here is a detailed list of the dependencies that this example SCIM server depends on, and what each dependency does.

      Name Version Description License Flask 0.10.1 A web framework built with a small core and easy-to-extend philosophy. BSD 3-Clause Flask-SQLAlchemy 2.1 Adds SQLAlchemy support to Flask. BSD 3-Clause Flask-SocketIO 2.1 Socket.IO integration for Flask applications. MIT gunicorn 19.4.5 A pre-fork worker model HTTP server for WSGI. MIT Jinja2 2.8 A modern and designer-friendly templating language. BSD 3-Clause MarkupSafe 0.23 A library for Python that implements a unicode string. BSD 3-Clause SQLAlchemy 1.0.12 SQL toolkit and Object Relational Mapper. MIT Werkzeug 0.11.4 A WSGI utility library for Python. BSD 3-Clause itsdangerous 0.24 Used to send data to untrusted environments. BSD 3-Clause python-engineio 0.8.8 Implementation of the Engine.IO realtime server. MIT python-socketio 1.0 Implementation of the Socket.IO realtime server. MIT six 1.10.0 Python 2 and 3 compatibility library. MIT wsgiref 0.1.2 Provides validation support for WSGI. PSF or ZPL psycopg2 Popular PostgreSQL adapter. LGPL 3 or ZPL eventlet Concurrent networking library. MIT

      License information

      Copyright © 2016-2017, Okta, Inc.
      
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      a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
      "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
      without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
      distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
      permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
      the following conditions:
      
      The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
      included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
      
      THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
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      NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
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      WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.