aspnetcore-angular2-universal

by ORuban

GitHub Readme.md

ASP.NET Core & Angular 2+ Universal starter

ASP.NET Core Angular 2+ Starter

Deploy

What is this repo?

This repository is maintained by Angular Universal and is meant to be an advanced starter for both ASP.NET Core using Angular 2.x(+), not only for the client-side, but to be rendered on the server for instant application paints (Note: If you don't need Universal (SSR) read here on how to disable it).

How do I stay up-to-date with the latest updates & changes of the repo? Check out the CHANGELOG here

This is meant to be a Feature-Rich Starter application containing all of the latest technologies, best build systems available, and include many real-world examples and libraries needed in todays Single Page Applications (SPAs).

This utilizes all the latest standards, no gulp, no bower, no typings, no manually "building" anything. NPM, Webpack and .NET handle everything for you!

[1/23] Fully operational, some improvements & new functionality to come, keep an eye out for the latest updates!

NOTE: Angular Universal is currently moving to Angular Core (https://github.com/angular/angular/issues/13822), we will need to wait for that and angular v4 to finish certain aspects (aot for example)


Table of Contents


Features:

These are just some of the features found in this starter!

  • Angular 2.x+ : (Currently working with latest Angular 2.4.5)

    • Featuring Server-side rendering (Angular Universal)
      • Faster paints, better SEO, deep-linking, etc
    • NgRx - Reactive Redux state management architecture
    • Baked in best-practices (follows Angular style guide)
    • Bootstrap4 (with ng2-bootstrap) - can be rendered on the server
  • Webpack build system (Webpack 2)

    • HMR : Hot Module Reloading/Replacement
      • NgRx utilized and setup to hold app State between HMR builds
    • Production builds
    • Webpack Dashboard
  • Docker support

  • Testing frameworks

    • Unit testing with Karma/Jasmine
    • E2E testing with Protractor
  • Productivity

    • Typescript 2
    • Codelyzer (for Real-Sime static code analysis)
      • VSCode & Atom provide real-time analysis out of the box.
      • NOTE: Does not fully work with Visual Studio yet. (Even with 1.1.0-preview)
  • ASP.NET Core 1.1

    • RestAPI integration
    • Integration with NodeJS to provide pre-rendering, as well as any other Node module asset you want to use.
  • Azure

    • Microsoft Application Insights setup (for MVC & Web API routing)
    • (Client-side Angular2 Application Insights integration coming soon)
  • REST API CRUD demo with Entity Framework Core



Getting Started?

Make sure you have at least Node 4.x or higher installed!

You'll need ASP.NET Core installed (1.0.1 or 1.1). Make sure you have VStudio 2015 update 3 installed as well.

  • Fork & Clone repo
  • npm install && dotnet restore (if using Visual Studio it will do both of these automatically when the project is opened)

Both Visual Studio & VSCode have the neccessary (Dev & Prod) Launch files to be able to run & debug immidiately.

(Temporarily) But for VSCode, in order to see the full Production version you must go to Command Line and set the environment variable to: ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT=Production, then run webpack manually. Then you can launch the [Production] Launch Web option from VSCode.

Note: set ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT=Production on Windows. export ASPNETCORE_ENVIRONMENT=Production on Mac/Linux.



UPCOMING Features:

  • (On-hold) Example of NgRx (redux) transfering App State from server to client - track #29
  • (On-hold) AoT (Ahead-of-time compilation) production builds - track #10
  • SignalR (Websockets) example - track #39
  • Automatically update Browser Title on Route change #32
  • Update components real unit & e2e tests - track #45
  • Storage Service (localStorage) showcasing Dependency Injection per-platform - #35
  • NgRx (reactive Redux application state management)
  • HMR State management (hold state when hot reload occurs)
  • Unit testing with Karma/Jasmine
  • Add e2e protractor tests
  • Add codelyzer for static code analysis (VSCode / Atom only so far)
  • Angular 2.1.1+ fixes (for Universal)


Application Structure:

Note: This application has WebAPI (our REST API) setup inside the same project, but of course all of this could be abstracted out into a completely separate project('s) ideally. .NET Core things are all done in the same project for simplicity's sake.

Root level files

Here we have the usual suspects found at the root level.

Front-end oriented files:

  • package.json - NPM project dependencies & scripts
  • .tsconfig - TypeScript configuration (here we setup PATHs as well)
  • webpack - configuration files (modular bundling + so much more)
  • karma - configuration files (unit testing)
  • protractor - config files (e2e testing)
  • tslint - TypeScript code linting rules

/Client/** - The entire Angular project is in here

Let's take a look at how this is structured so we can make some sense of it all!

With Angular Universal, we need to split things per platform so if we look inside this folder, you'll see the 2 most important files (also, these are how the entire application starts up):

  • Bootstrap-Client.ts - This file starts up the entire Angular application for the Client/browser platform.

Here we setup a few things, client Angular bootstrapping, and also a little hack to handle Hot Module Replacement (HMR), and make sure we hold our NgRx (RxJs redux application Store) state between HMR cycles, ie: when you make a change to any Client file.

You'll barely need to touch this file, but this is where you would import libraries that you only want being used in the Browser.

  • Bootstrap-Server.ts - This file is where Angular Universal serializes the Angular application itself on the .NET server within a very quick Node process, and renders it a string. This is what causes that initial fast paint of the entire application to the Browser.

Notice the folder structure here in ./Client/ :

+ /Client/

+   /app/
    ROOT App Component / Routes / global css styles

++ > ++ > /platform-modules/
            Platform specific NgModules (browser & server separated)
++ > ++ > /shared-module/
            BaseSharedModule (the lowest delimiter NgModule)
++ > ++ > /state/
            Here you will find our NgRx "State", Reducers, and magic HMR handler

++ > ++ > /components/ 
      	    Here are all the regular Components that aren't "Pages" or container Components

++ > /containers/
       These are the routeable or "Page / Container" Components, sometimes known as "Dumb" Components

++ > /shared/
       Here we put all shared Services / Directives / Pipes etc

When adding new features/components/etc to your application you'll be commonly adding things to the Root NgModule, but why are there two?

This is because we want to split our logic per Platform, but notice they both share a Common NgModule named app.common.module.ts (in the same folder). When adding most things to your application, this is the only place you'll have to add in your new Component / Directive / Pipe / etc. You'll only occassional need to manually add in the Platform specific things to either app.browser.module || app.server.module.

For example you can see how we're using Dependency Injection to inject a StorageService that is different for the Browser & Server.

// For the Browser (app.browser.module)
{ provide: StorageService, useClass: BrowserStorage }

// For the Server (app.server.module)
{ provide: StorageService, useClass: ServerStorage }

Besides that you can see how each platform NgModule has the neccessary Universal lifecycle hooks to setup HttpCacheService, etc.

Just remember, you'll usually only need to worry about app.common.module, as that's where you'll be adding most of your applications new aspects.

/Server/** - MVC & WebAPI Controllers

As we pointed out, these are here for simplicities sake, and realistically you may want separate projects for all your microservices / REST API projects / etc.



Universal "Gotchas"

When building "Universal" components in Angular 2 there are a few things to keep in mind.

What does it mean to be Universal?

It means that every Component in your application is going to be ran on the Server, as well as the Client (browser)! There are some important things to consider when creating an application like this, below we'll list out a few common problems developers trying to make isomorphic javascript applications run into:

  • window, document, navigator, and other browser types - do not exist on the server - so using them, or any library that uses them (jQuery for example) will not work. You do have some options, if you truly need some of this functionality:
    • If you need to use them, consider limiting them to only your main.client and wrapping them situationally with the imported isBrowser / isNode features from Universal. import { isBrowser, isNode } from 'angular2-universal';
    • Another option is using DOM from "@angular/platform-browser"
  • To use templateUrl or styleUrls you must use angular2-template-loader in your TypeScript loaders.
    • This is already setup within this starter repo. Look at the webpack.config file here for details & implementation.
  • Try to limit or avoid using setTimeout. It will slow down the server-side rendering process. Make sure to remove them ondestroy in Components.
    • Also for RxJs timeouts, make sure to cancel their stream on success, for they can slow down rendering as well.
  • Don't manipulate the nativeElement directly. Use the Renderer. We do this to ensure that in any environment we're able to change our view.
constructor(element: ElementRef, renderer: Renderer) {
  renderer.setElementStyle(element.nativeElement, 'font-size', 'x-large');
}
  • The application runs XHR requests on the server & once again on the Client-side (when the application bootstraps)
    • Use a Universal HttpCacheService instead of making regular Http requests, to save certain requests so they aren't re-ran again on the Client. demo'd here
  • Know the difference between attributes and properties in relation to the DOM.
  • Keep your directives stateless as much as possible. For stateful directives, you may need to provide an attribute that reflects the corresponding property with an initial string value such as url in img tag. For our native <img src=""> element the src attribute is reflected as the src property of the element type HTMLImageElement.

Found a Bug? Want to Contribute?

Nothing's ever perfect, but please let me know by creating an issue (make sure there isn't an existing one about it already), and we'll try and work out a fix for it! If you have any good ideas, or want to contribute, feel free to either make an Issue with the Proposal, or just make a PR from your Fork.


FAQ

How to add a route in the app

  1. Create a folder in Client\Containers\
  2. Create a component in the folder
  3. Add the container in the Client\Containers\index.ts (this is the "barrels" file for all containers)
  4. Add the container in the \Client\app\platform-modules\app.common.module.ts
  5. Add the container in the \Client\app\app.routes.ts

How can I disable Universal / SSR (Server-side rendering)?

To disable SSR, go to Views/Home/Index.cshtml and remove asp-prerender-module="Client/bootstrap-server" from the <app> component there in the cshtml file.

How do I prevent XHR calls from running again on the Client?

Using the provided GET from HttpCacheService as opposed to regular Http, it will automatically Cache the response on the server, and pass it down through the html for you, and when the Client tries to run it again, it will instantly grab the result from there.

This is essential for important XHR calls on a page that happen on page load

How do I have code run only in the Browser?

Angular Universal has isBrowser & isNode you can import from angular2-universal to conditionally run code. This is perfect for situations where code could error on the server. Also, always remember that things like setTimeout / setInterval / etc should always be wrapped in this, as you want to completely avoid doing them on the Server.

import { isBrowser } from 'angular2-universal';

if (isBrowser) {
   // do something only in the Browser
}

How can I use Material2 with this Repo?

For now, Material2 is still in beta, and isn't fully functioning with Universal (it will sometime soon though!), so temporarily disable SSR (server-side rendering) so you can use it within your application until updates come from Material, and you can have it rendered on the server as well. Read the Material docs to see how to add Material to your Angular application, with SSR disabled everything should work without any problems.

How can I use jQuery and/or some jQuery plugins with Angular Universal?

Note: If at all possible, try to avoid using jQuery or libraries dependent on it, as there are better, more abstract ways of dealing with the DOM in Angular (2+) such as using the Renderer, etc.

Yes, of course but there are a few things you need to setup before doing this. First, make sure jQuery is included in webpack vendor file, and that you have a webpack Plugin setup for it. new webpack.ProvidePlugin({ $: 'jquery', jQuery: 'jquery' })

Now, make sure any "plugins" etc that you have, are only included in your bootstrap-client.ts file. (ie: import 'slick-carousel';) In a Component you want to use jQuery, make sure to import it near the top like so:

import * as $ from 'jquery';

Always make sure to wrap anything jQuery oriented in Universal's isBrowser conditional!


Special Thanks

Many thanks go out to Steve Sanderson (@SteveSandersonMS) from Microsoft and his amazing work on JavaScriptServices and integrating the world of Node with ASP.NET Core.


License

MIT License

Copyright (c) 2016-2017 Mark Pieszak

Twitter: @MarkPieszak | Medium: @MarkPieszak